Research Articles


Food for Thought

Educating those on Dysphagia and other swallowing disorders.

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History of Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing for Evaluation and Management of Pharyngeal Dysphagia: Changes over the Years

A Personal Note - Back in 1988, when the first description of the FEES procedure was published [1], otolaryngologists had just started to use fiberoptic laryngoscopes in their practice. Prior to fiberoptic technology, laryngoscopy was performed with a mirror or more invasive direct laryngoscopy instruments. The first fiberoptic laryngoscope is generally credited to Sawashima and Hirose in 1968. It transformed the practice of laryngoscopy by allowing a transnasal approach with the patient conscious during the procedure and providing a view of the vocal folds during natural speech.

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